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Keywords: reproduction, Biology, Science, punnett squares, genes, Heredity, Life science
Subject(s): Life Science, Science, Biology
Grades 7 through 12
NETS-S Standard:
  • Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Decision Making
View Full Text of Standards
School: West Wilson Middle School, Mount Juliet, TN
Planned By: Kristin Sloan
Original Author: Kristin Sloan, Mount Juliet
Lesson Title: Heredity

State Standard(s):
SPI 0707.4.4 Interpret a Punnett square to predict possible genetic combinations passed from parents to offspring during sexual reproduction.

Lesson Objective:
Students will analyze their own understanding and mastery of heredity and punnett squares as we walk through an example as a class. Students will then use prior knowledge of heredity to complete a Heredity Game (Who’s You Daddy?), and reinforce the content knowledge we have covered.

Higher-Order Thinking Questions (Include in the opening dialogue and Closure):
1. How can I use punnett squares to interpret physical traits I can see?
2. What do I need to understand about heredity to successfully understand and interact with the world around me?
3. Now that I have completed the sections on heredity how does this information affect me personally?
4. How can the diagrams I have drawn help me interpret the data visually?

Bell ringer: What is the difference between a genotype and a phenotype?

Strategy/Instruction: Begin by going over our bell ringer. Ask the class to compare and contrast genotype and phenotype and explain it to you. Show students the picture of the twins who look nothing alike. Ask them how they think that is possible? As a class, see if you can come up with a punnett square where we can have two offspring with those traits. Point out to the students that you use the same process for probability in science that you would in math class. We are looking for the probability that offspring will get certain traits. “Why is this especially important in predicting genetic diseases?” They should use generalizations to explain what could happen if parents carrying genetic disorders pass those traits on. One day they might use this information to find out the likelihood of their children having a hereditary disease if they or their spouse has that allele. Also remind students to think of “quarters” and money instead of boxes to find quick percentages. Reinforce good test taking skills, and ways to check you work. Ex: “All of your percentages must add up to 100%.” “Remember you can rule out wrong answers 1st to help you figure out the right answer if you are struggling.” Encourage the students to remember previous examples from class where you had to analyze the information given to you (like the genotype and phenotype of two very different twins) and use that information to synthesize possibilities (such as what those twins’ parents’ genotypes and phenotype would have been). Have a class discussion over heredity in which they may ask any questions they still have. Next the students will use their iPads(or other device) to complete the “Who’s Your Daddy?” web based activity. In the activity students will go over the included tutorials and then complete the challenge. In the “Who’s Your Daddy?” activity students must use their knowledge of heredity to match babies that are being evacuated from a hospital to their parents. Walk around the room and monitor student progress. Have the students go back and look at the informational links on the main page if they are struggling with some of the information. We will stop just before the bell and discuss what was presented and everything covered in class to this point. Ask if there are any questions over what we have covered.

Activities: “Who’s Your Daddy” (http://www.cccoe.net/genetics/student.html) : This activity requires the students to recall previously learned information and apply that knowledge to answer questions. (I will make special note of those that struggle with the questions, and make sure to take time to reinforce the concepts individually and as a class during the game).
Practice: Bellringer, Activity

Closure: Discussion

Assessment: During the lesson there will be constant questions presented to the students by the teacher. The answers will be noted and/or recorded by the teacher and instruction changed accordingly. Final assessments are assigned based on the test scores, class participation, activity, and benchmark. The expected level is for 90 percent proficiency and advanced scores on the classroom questions and upcoming Benchmark test. The remaining 10 percent will be subject to re-teaching to ensure complete understanding.

Grouping Students:
Students are strategically grouped for activities and strategically seated in the classroom. Students will be grouped and seated such that weaker students are near stronger students. I also do this because there are times that the students can communicate a concept summary in a way that the other students understand better. Students are also placed in groups/seats that promote the best behavior.

Accommodations for Individual student needs:
Students who are struggling or have IEPs will receive extra help (extra time, printed notes, extra prompting, and oral testing when needed). The lessons will be taught through demonstrations and power points for the visual learners in the room and my kinesthetic learners use tactile materials to create the labs. It will also be presented verbally through the teacher giving the auditory learners the instruction as well. This will accommodate most of the learning styles in the class. (In this particular lesson we will use demonstrations on the board, iPad activity, discussion, and hand movements to associate movements with the content knowledge).

If we could get iPads into the classroom that students could use every day the learning tools we have access to would be amazing! Also the students' interest level would increase. In a world where almost everything they do is based on technology it can be very difficult to keep their attention without it. It would allow for greater variability in the lesson based on individual student mastery levels as well. This would make differentiation much more effective.
Cross-Curriculum Ideas
We could collaborate with Social Studies, Math, and LA
Materials: Middle, Science, Bags and Cases, Mice, Keyboards, LCD Monitors, Computer Accessories, Scientific, Middle School, Projector Screens, Networked Projectors, Whiteboards, Internet Services, Student Resources, Assessment, Cause and Effect, Hardware Devices
Other Items: 36 iPad Mini2, $269.00 each, total of $9684.00