# (PART 1) Applied STEM: Rocketry and its Components

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 Subject(s): Grades 6 through 8 NETS-S Standard: Creativity and InnovationCommunication and CollaborationResearch and Information FluencyCritical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Decision MakingDigital CitizenshipTechnology Operations and ConceptsView Full Text of Standards School: Stanton Middle School, Kent, OH Planned By: Edward Hawks III Original Author: Edward Hawks III, Kent
STANTON MIDDLE SCHOOL

UNIT LESSON PLAN FOR GRADES 6-8

Specific Lesson Plans at the end of this Unit Plan
[Entire Unit of Study over Time ¡V Approximately One Semester]
Unit Title: Applied STEM: Rocketry and its Components
Academic Subject Areas: Science, Technology, Engineering, Math

I. Targeted ACS / NES (As related to Science and Math)
(Posted on wall based upon objectives for that day)

Ohio Academic Content Standards:
http://www.ohiorc.org/
(Ohio Resource Center)
http://www.northcanton.sparcc.org/~techresources/
(Ohio
Treasure Chest ¡V ACS: North Canton Schools)
http://www.nctm.org/standards/
(National Council of Teachers of Mathematics)
www.nasaexplorers.com/standards/standards.php>(NationalScience Education Standards)
Students will:
A. Scientific Inquiry
„« Formulate instructions and communicate data in a manner that allows others to understand and repeat an investigation or experiment.
„« Describe how comparisons may not be fair when some conditions are not kept the same between experiments.
„« Evaluate observations and measurements made by other people and identify reasons for any discrepancies (anomalies).
„« Use evidence and observations to explain and communicate the results of investigations.
„« Identify variables in a simple experiment.
„« Identify potential hazards and/or precautions involved in an investigation.
„« Explain why results of an experiment are sometimes different (e.g., because of unexpected differences in what is being investigated, unrealized differences in the methods used or in the circumstances in which the investigation was carried out, and because of errors in observations).
„« Choose the appropriate tools and instruments and use relevant safety procedures to complete scientific investigations.
„« Apply appropriate math skills to interpret quantitative data.
„« Construct, interpret and apply physical and conceptual models that represent or explain systems, objects, events or concepts.
„« Explain why results of an experiment (test) might be different than that for which was hoped.
„« List and explain all possible outcomes in a given situation.
„« Distinguish between observations and inferences given a scientific situation.
„« Explain that variables and controls can affect the results of an investigation and that ideally one variable should be tested at a time; however, it is not always possible to control all variables.

B. Physical Sciences
„« Demonstrate that motion is a measurable quantity that depends on the observer¡¦s frame of reference, and describe the object¡¦s motion in terms of position, velocity, acceleration, and time.
„« Describe how the change in the position (motion) of an object is always judged and described in comparison to a reference point.
„« Explain that an unbalanced force acting on an object changes the object¡¦s speed and/or direction (stability test).
„« Use historical examples to explain how new ideas are limited by the context in which they are conceived; are often initially rejected by the scientific establishment; sometimes spring up from unexpected findings; and usually grow from the contributions of many investigators (e.g., NASA engineers and rocketry design).
„« Explain the change in motion (acceleration) of an object. Demonstrate that the acceleration is proportional to the net force acting on the object and is proportional to the mass of the object (F=MA).

C. Data Analysis and Probability
„« Modify initial conclusions, propose and justify new interpretations and predictions as additional data are collected.
„« List and explain all possible outcomes in a given situation.
„« Compare what should happen (theoretical/expected results) with what did happen (experimental/actual results) in an experiment.
„« Design an experiment to test a theoretical probability and explain how the results may vary.
„« Make predictions based on theoretical probabilities, design and conduct an experiment to test the predictions, compare actual results to predicted results, and explain differences.

D. Measurement
„« Select a tool and measure accurately to a specified level of precision.
„« Convert units of length within the same measurement system
„« Understand the relationship of scale factors (e.g., scale models that require unit conversions within the same measurement system).
„« Use appropriate levels of precision when calculating with measurements (e.g., ruler, compass, and protractor).
„« Analyze problem situations involving measurement concepts, select appropriate strategies, and use an organized approach to solve complex problems.

E. Geometry and Spatial Sense
„« Use and demonstrate understanding of the Pythagorean Theorem to solve problems involving right angles and how it applies to right angles and the fin structures of a rocket.
„« Apply properties of congruent or similar triangles to solve problems.
„« Apply the concepts of diameter and radius as they apply to a circle (e.g., using an engineering ruler and compass to calculate the radius: r = d/2).

F. Scientific Ways of Knowing
„« Comprehend that many scientific investigations require contributions of women and men form different disciplines in and out of science. These people study different topics, use different techniques and have different standards of evidence but share a common purpose ¡V to better understand a portion of our universe.
„« Recognize the appropriateness and value of basic questions ¡§What can happen?¡¨ ¡§How do scientists and engineers know what will happen?¡¨

Targeted Assessments / Outcomes
Ohio Academic Content Standards:
http://www.ohiorc.org/
(Ohio Resource Center)
http://www.northcanton.sparcc.org/~techresources/
(Ohio
Treasure Chest ¡V ACS: North Canton Schools)
http://www.nctm.org/standards/
(National Council of Teachers of Mathematics)
www.nasaexplorers.com/standards/standards.php>(NationalScience Education Standards) Assessments and
Student Outcomes
Students will:
A. Scientific Inquiry
„« Formulate instructions and communicate data in a manner that allows others to understand and repeat an investigation or experiment.
„« Describe how comparisons may not be fair when some conditions are not kept the same between experiments.
„« Evaluate observations and measurements made by other people and identify reasons for any discrepancies (anomalies).
„« Use evidence and observations to explain and communicate the results of investigations.
„« Identify variables in a simple experiment.
„« Identify potential hazards and/or precautions involved in an investigation.
„« Explain why results of an experiment are sometimes different (e.g., because of unexpected differences in what is being investigated, unrealized differences in the methods used or in the circumstances in which the investigation was carried out, and because of errors in observations).
„« Choose the appropriate tools and instruments and use relevant safety procedures to complete scientific investigations.
„« Apply appropriate math skills to interpret quantitative data.
„« Construct, interpret and apply physical and conceptual models that represent or explain systems, objects, events or concepts.
„« Explain why results of an experiment (test) might be different than that for which was hoped.
„« List and explain all possible outcomes in a given situation.
„« Distinguish between observations and inferences given a scientific situation.
„« Explain that variables and controls can affect the results of an investigation and that ideally one variable should be tested at a time; however, it is not always possible to control all variables.

B. Physical Sciences
„« Demonstrate that motion is a measurable quantity that depends on the observer¡¦s frame of reference, and describe the object¡¦s motion in terms of position, velocity, acceleration, and time.
„« Describe how the change in the position (motion) of an object is always judged and described in comparison to a reference point.
„« Explain that an unbalanced force acting on an object changes the object¡¦s speed and/or direction (stability test).
„« Use historical examples to explain how new ideas are limited by the context in which they are conceived; are often initially rejected by the scientific establishment; sometimes spring up from unexpected findings; and usually grow from the contributions of many investigators (e.g., NASA engineers and rocketry design).
„« Explain the change in motion (acceleration) of an object. Demonstrate that the acceleration is proportional to the net force acting on the object and is proportional to the mass of the object (F=MA).

C. Data Analysis and Probability
„« Modify initial conclusions, propose and justify new interpretations and predictions as additional data are collected.
„« List and explain all possible outcomes in a given situation.
„« Compare what should happen (theoretical/expected results) with what did happen (experimental/actual results) in an experiment.
„« Design an experiment to test a theoretical probability and explain how the results may vary.
„« Make predictions based on theoretical probabilities, design and conduct an experiment to test the predictions, compare actual results to predicted results, and explain differences.

D. Measurement
„« Select a tool and measure accurately to a specified level of precision.
„« Convert units of length within the same measurement system
„« Understand the relationship of scale factors (e.g., scale models that require unit conversions within the same measurement system).
„« Use appropriate levels of precision when calculating with measurements (e.g., ruler, compass, and protractor).
„« Analyze problem situations involving measurement concepts, select appropriate strategies, and use an organized approach to solve complex problems.

E. Geometry and Spatial Sense
„« Use and demonstrate understanding of the Pythagorean Theorem to solve problems involving right angles and how it applies to right angles and the fin structures of a rocket.
„« Apply properties of congruent or similar triangles to solve problems.
„« Apply the concepts of diameter and radius as they apply to a circle (e.g., using an engineering ruler and compass to calculate the radius: r = d/2).

F. Scientific Ways of Knowing
„« Comprehend that many scientific investigations require contributions of women and men form different disciplines in and out of science. These people study different topics, use different techniques and have different standards of evidence but share a common purpose ¡V to better understand a portion of our universe.
„« Recognize the appropriateness and value of basic questions ¡§What can happen?¡¨ ¡§How do scientists and engineers know what will happen?¡¨ Assessments will be based on the:
„« Identification of all rocket components and their functions.
„« Understanding of all objectives with the ability to explain each.
„« Ability to perform all mathematical calculations to determine apogee, velocity, rate of speed of vehicle (ft. /sec., ft. /min., ft. /hr., mi. /hr.).
„« Ability to calculate an engine¡¦s impulse, thrust, coasting phase using appropriate formulas.
„« Ability to examine retrieved rockets, view video footage, and determine ways to prevent certain anomalies.
„« Ability to explain how NASA would test a vehicle, assess its performance, make modifications, and attempt another launch (Scientific Inquiry used).
„« Understanding of measurement and proper use of an engineering ruler (parts to the inch) and compass as they apply to diameter, radius, and circumference for constructing engine mounts to secure the engine inside the rocket¡¦s body tube.
„« Ability to take a true dimension (rocket) and all components and scale down (planned dimension) to a percentage, then draw the object using engineering graph paper and ruler. (Not used with this particular unit of study)
„« Competence to apply engineering concepts and mathematical skills, based upon video footage, of students¡¦ rocket launches, to evaluate all aspects of flight with the ability to make corrections to any anomalies, making necessary changes to the reconstructed vehicle, and launching again so that new data can be recorded and compared with that of the previous launches. Changes in stability and aerodynamic issues will help students achieve successful flights.
„« Ability to formulate conclusions based upon video footage of test launches and to make necessary modifications to achieve successful flight using appropriate stability and aerodynamics.
„« Evaluations will also be based upon students¡¦ observations from different angles of video cameras to capture each launch variable. All angles will be transferred to a laptop and edited into one DVD so that students can view diverse angles, in slow motion, of each aspect of launch so that any glitches or anomalies can be clearly seen and corrected for the next rocket design, construction, and test launch.

*Academic Content Standards: Students who can exceed the grade-level indicators and benchmarks set forth in the standards must be afforded the opportunity to do so. Gifted and talented students may require special services or activities in order to fully develop their intellectual, creative, artistic, and leadership abilities or to excel in a specific content area. Again, the point of departure is the standards-based curriculum. (Source: ACS, K-12, pg. 25)

 Comments This is an indepth unit plan for engineering and model rocketry. All Standards and cross-curriculum ideas are part of the unit plan. The unit plan is 9 pages in length and will be shared upon request. Materials: Computer Accessories, CDs and DVDs, Memory Cards, Tripods, Flash/USB Drives, Camera Bags, Camera/Video Accessories, Hard Drives, Video Tools, Middle School, Calculators, DVD/VCR Players, Televisions, Electronics, Microphones, Digital Voice Recorders, Hi-Def Camcorder, DVD Camcorder, Flip Video, Flash Memory Camcorders, Video Cameras, Whiteboards, Middle, Science, Office Suite, Word Processor, Spreadsheet, Integrating Technology Other Items: 150 Estes Solid Fuel Rocket Engines, \$3-pack (\$8.00/ea. - 15.00 each1 Mantis Launch Pad, \$100.00 each, total of \$100.00 Duck Tape to decorate rockets, \$Prices vary each5 Hot glue guns, \$25.00/ea. each Hot glue gun refills, \$5 lb. box (\$15.00) each200 1" to 2" dia. tubes, \$(Donated) each