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Keywords: Energy Transfer and Transformations
Subject(s): Grammar, Spelling, English/Language Arts, Photography, Information Skills, Writing, Science, Physics
Grades 5 through 8
School: Mayfield Intermediate School, Manassas, VA
Planned By: Karen Etherington
Original Author: Karen Etherington, Manassas
Can You See What I See?
Energy Transfer and Transformations

Physical Science: Grades 5 - 8
National Science Standard B: As a result of activities in grades 5 – 8, all students will develop an understanding of transfer of energy.

Objective: Students will improve their understanding of energy by visually experiencing many kinds of energy transfers. They will take step-by-step pictures of energy transfers/transformations and use them to create their own energy transfer Rebus Stories. (Reason and Examine By Uncovering Symbols).

Rationale: At the 5 – 8 level, teaching, learning, and understanding the concept that energy is an important property of many substances, objects, and organisms is often difficult because it is often an unseen or unclear phenomena. The fact that energy can be transferred in so many different ways makes the concept even more difficult to grasp for English Language learners and students with learning differences. There is also extensive core vocabulary involved. As students think critically to piece together each step of an energy transfer or transformation, colorful real life pictures will help them understand and retain the information and new vocabulary. All students, especially those with visual or kinesthetic learning styles, will benefit from the visual presentation of energy transfers and transformations.

Concepts:
A. Energy can be transferred (given) from one object to another.
•A bowling ball transfers its energy to the pins
•A pitcher transfers his energy to the baseball
•A batter transfers his energy to the bat and the bat to the ball
•Potential energy can be transferred to kinetic energy

B. Energy can be transformed (changed) into different kinds of energy.
•Energy is transformed when people exercise (food), cars run (gasoline), living things grow, plants make food (photosynthesis), stars explode, or forests burn.
•Many machines transform energy from one form to another. Examples include cars, radios (electrical to sound), TVs (electrical to heat, light, sound), and computers.
•When energy is transformed into a different kind of energy, it almost
always gives off heat. A light bulb transforms electrical energy to radiant (light) energy and thermal (heat) energy.

Lesson Activities:
1. Students will use books and Internet sites to investigate various types of energy transfers and transformations and select one as a focus. We will use our mobile lab for this activity.
2. After researching a specific energy transfer or transformation, students will again use our mobile lab and PowerPoint or other storyboard capable software to create an energy storyboard. Each part of the storyboard will include the next step in the transfer or transformation of energy within the student’s creative story.
3. Students will check out digital cameras to use either in the classroom or at home to take pictures of the various steps involved in the energy transfer or transformation they have selected. Either still pictures or short video segments may be used. Video segments may work best to demonstrate/capture the end result (ex. a television’s picture, sound, and heat). Students may also choose to use clip art for concepts that cannot be photographed. As an example, clip art of an atom with electrons might begin an electrical energy story. Photographs can then be taken of an outlet, plug, wire within a cord, connection to the electrical unit, with a final picture of a TV, for example, emitting light, heat, and sound all represented by clip art pictures. Flash drives may also be utilized to store and retrieve pictures.
4. Once each step of the process has been photographed, students will develop a key in which each picture represents a word/step in the transfer or transformation process.
5. Using the key as a guide, students will delete each word from the energy story that can be represented by one of the pictures taken. The word should be deleted each time it appears.
6. On the side or bottom of the first storyboard slide, students will add a key that includes the pictures taken and the word associated with each picture. Pictures will have to be appropriately sized. If desired, students can record each word that is represented by the picture and attach the sound file to the picture by adding it as an “Action Setting” then “Other Sound.” The key should be copied and pasted onto each slide. If more than one of the same picture is needed on any one slide, duplicate pictures (CTL + D) may be layered one on top of the other.
7. A final slide with all of the correct words inserted in the appropriate places of the story can be added for a quick and easy self check.
8. In the “Normal View” with all other panes closed, students can exchange Rebus stories and click and drag the appropriate pictures into the appropriate blanks in each energy story. If sound files are attached, students may then click “Slide Show,” read the story, and click on each picture to hear their answer. Students may revisit the Rebus story as many times as desired until the concept is clear.

After we complete our energy transfer/transformation stories, the students’ work will be transferred to SMART Board software for use with our Smart Board lessons. We will also add students’ work to our ThinkQuest website. ThinkQuest is a learning based project where students and teachers integrate their classroom projects into a lesson on a website shared around the world.

Assessment: Teacher created rubric.

Connection to Curriculum: State of Virginia

Science:
SOL 6.2 – Comprehend and apply basic terminology related to energy transformations and sources.
Compare and contrast potential and kinetic energy.
Create and interpret a model or diagram of an energy transformation.
Describe and analyze the transformations of energy involved with the formation and
burning of coal and other fossil fuels.

Writing:
SOL 6.6 – Students will use a variety of planning strategies to generate and organize ideas.
Student will select vocabulary and information to enhance the central idea.
Student will select vocabulary and tone with awareness of
Cross-Curriculum Ideas
Taking digital pictures and using them to create Rebus stories can also be easily adapted to any social studies curriculum.
Follow-Up
Students will share and solve a large variety of energy stories.
Materials: Clip Art, Authoring and Publishing, Middle, Elementary, Flash/USB Drives, Cables, Memory Cards, Portable, Point and Shoot, Digital Cameras, Screen Capture