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Newton's Laws for One and All!


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Keywords: Newton's Laws, force, mass acceleration, inertia, action, reaction,
Subject(s): Science, Physics
Grades 8 through 10
NETS-S Standard:
  • Creativity and Innovation
  • Communication and Collaboration
  • Research and Information Fluency
  • Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Decision Making
View Full Text of Standards
School: Leeds Middle School, Leeds, AL
Planned By: Racheal Haley
Original Author: Racheal Haley, Leeds
Lesson Title: Newton’s Laws for One and All!
Subject: Physical Science


Standards:
Alabama State Course of Study Standards:
A. Science 8.8 Use Newton’s first law to demonstrate and explain that an object is either at rest of moves at a constant velocity unless acted upon by an external force (e.g. model car on a table remaining at rest until pushed)
B. Science 8.9 Use Newton’s second law to demonstrate and explain how changes in an object’s motion depend on the sum of the external forces on the object and the mass of the object (e.g billiard balls moving when hit with a cue stick)
C. Science 8.10 Use Newton’s third law to design a model to demonstrate and explain the result motion of two colliding objects (e.g. two cars bumping into each other, a hammer hitting a nail)
D. Technology 8.2 Publish digital products that communicate curriculum concepts
E. Technology 8.5 Use basic features of word processing, spreadsheets, databases, and presentation software
F. Technology 8.11 Use digital tools and strategies to locate, collect, organize, evaluate, and synthesize information.
G. Technology 8.12 Use digital tools to communicate and collaborate at all levels from interpersonal to global
E.g. Demonstrating digital file transfer
H. Technology 8.14 Use digital tools to generate new ideas, produces, or processes


Next Generation Science Standards
A. MS-PS2-1 Apply Newton’s Third Law to design a solution to a problem involving the motion of two colliding objects
B. MS-PS2-2 Plan an investigation to provide evidence that the change in an object’s motion depends on the sum of the forces on the object and the mass of the object


In this unit, students will create a digital portfolio of their learning. Students will collaborate on portions of this unit, while other parts are individual. This unit focuses on learning, applying, and working with Newton’s Laws of Motion. It is a layered curriculum unit which has students progressively building in their understanding and use of the laws.


Level 1: Everyone will complete each of these activities
A. Try It: (Everyone will complete these prior to beginning the rest of Level 1 to give students a chance to play with Newton’s Laws before learning about them)
Complete the Newton’s Laws Mini-Circuit with Mrs. Haley
Balanced and unbalanced forces with blocks and springs
Inertia Beads (First Law)
The relationship with force and mass (changing the mass when pulling items-body carts) (Second Law)
Conservation of Momentum (crashing tennis balls and wireless physics carts) (Third Law)


B. Watch It:
View the video lesson using EdPuzzle and answer the questions as you go. Pause the video as you need to so that you can record notes in Google Docs to use in your other stations. You may copy and use the Cornell Notes template or create your own note file.
Use the PhEt simulation (available at https://phet.colorado.edu/sims/html/forces-and-motion-basics/latest/forces-and-motion-basics_en.html)to interact and learn about forces and motion
Read It:
Read Chapter 2 Lesson 2. Create a foldable chart similar to what you see on pg. 58 in Google Sheets that will allow you to compare and contrast the terms. Add this Sheets file to your Newton’s Laws folder in Google Drive.
Read Chapter 2 Lesson 3. Create a five question quiz about Newton’s Second Law. You may type this in Google docs or use Google Forms to create your quiz.
Read Chapter 2 Lesson 4. Make a one-slide mini poster using Google Slides that highlights the important concepts in from this lesson about Newton’s Third Law.
**Make sure all of these items are in you Newton’s Laws folder in Drive that has been shared with me!**


Level 2:
A. Apply It: (This will be completed prior to completing their chosen activity below.)
Complete each of the following experiments and analyze and communicate which law of motion it represents.
(Complete your reflection and analysis in Google Docs and save to your Newton’s Laws Drive folder)
Law 1: Egg Inertia: https://www.stevespanglerscience.com/lab/experiments/egg-drop-inertia-trick/
Law2: Cart Physics: How does mass affect motion?
Law 3: Acid Base Rocket

B. Choose one activity from the following list to complete
Activity 1: Compose a picture book about Newton’s Laws. Your picture book may contain fictional elements, but it should thoroughly explain each of the laws. You may create your “book” using Google Slides or do it on paper and scan it into your Drive Folder.
Activity 2: Create a video about Newton’s Laws similar to Bill Nye where you inform your audience in a fun and exciting way! This may be done as a group project, but there will be no more than three people to a group.
Activity 3: Design a game in which students can learn about Newton’s Laws. You may choose to create a digital game (Kahoot, Jeopardy, etc) or an old-fashioned board game. Be sure to include a set of rule and any pieces the players might need. If you choose to do an old-fashioned board game, upload pictures of your game and the rules into Google Drive.


Level 3: Collaborate with your peers to use what you have learned

A. What’s the point of a seatbelt? Which law is it attempting to protect you from? What about a parachute? What happens to two football players when they collide on the field? How do Newton’s laws apply to this situation?Read the following article: (This can be modified to three different reading levels) http://www.forbes.com/sites/chadorzel/2015/10/11/football-physics-big-hits-newtons-laws-and-einsteins-relativity/#5b3b16ab5e0a
In a Google Doc, write an essay in which you justify the importance of helmets on the football field. Be sure to use textual evidence to back up your opinions!



B. Egg Drop

Task: You have been promoted to a design team tasked with creating a new helmet for high school football. You want your helmet to be safe, but you also need it to be affordable. With your group, you will plan a device that will protect a raw egg from the forces of impact. Just like in a football game, your egg with need a helmet to protect it from the forces it will endure as it hits the ground. We will drop these eggs from a height of 5 meters and you will be provided with a set of supplies to make your protection unit. Each of the materials you will have the opportunity to use has a price associated with it. You will attempt to make a helmet that completely protects your egg at the lowest cost to your company. Each team will also create a collaborative Google Slides presentation.


Background: Do some research on the physics of football and create one slide in your presentation that explains the forces that act on the players. On a second slide, explain the different forces that will affect your egg during its journey.


Planning: Each person in the group will create a plan on paper using the list of supplies. You will determine the pros and cons of each design and then meld them into one design for your group. For each design (to be drawn on paper) you will take a picture and import it into your Google Slides presentation where you can analyze each vehicle. You will then upload your final plan with an explanation of why you chose this design. There only needs to be ONE Slides presentation for your group.


Supplies
1 cardboard tissue box - $50
2 pieces of cardboard -$25 each
1 empty 2 liter bottle -$25
1 paper towel roll -$10
10 rubber bands-$ 1 each
10 cotton balls -$5 each
1 plastic Walmart bag - $5
5 sheets of white paper - $1 each
Some string - $1 for 1 meter
1 egg (to be provided on drop day) - FREE




Building: Using the supplies you will build your design. We will use washers to create a weight similar to that of an egg and you must calculate the force your egg will endure upon impact. To your Google Slides presentation you will add pictures of your design and a cost analysis. Once each group has their design created, we will drop the eggs.


The Drop: We will video each egg drop so that you can analyze your egg’s fall and determine what needs to be changed. In addition to your video, you will add a reflection based on your video in which you analyze the fall to your Slide presentation. You will also determine changes that need to be made to your design and how the cost will be affected.
Cross-Curriculum Ideas
Level three can be linked to mathematics and finance as students analyze the cost of their design against the effectiveness of the project.
Follow-Up
Addtional Project Option:
Newton’s Vehicle:
“You’re GROUNDED!” your mom shouts at you as she slams the door to your room. You hear her yelling the same thing at your brother down hall. As she stomps downstairs you and your brother open your doors to to silently communicate how unfair this whole situation is. You open a bag of Cheetos and begin to quietly munch as you contemplate how boring your life is about to become. Your brother silently yells at you because he has no cheetos in his room. You throw a cheeto as hard as you can down the hall, but it lands out of reach for your brother. You shrug and your brother scowls at you. You love your brother, so you begin to look for a way to get him some Cheetos. As you look around you realize you have a lot of JUNK in your room! No wonder you mom says you live in a pig sty! Suddenly, you get an idea! You have been learning about Newton’s Laws in science and you decide to use the things in your room to help you build a vehicle that can transport a bag of Cheetos down to your brother using principles you have learned in science. You pat yourself on the back for having such a genius idea and get down to business rounding up supplies.


Task: Develop and build a vehicle that uses Newton’s laws for power. The car must travel at least 4 meters and carry a payload (egg). You will document every step of this process


Supplies
1 cardboard tissue box
2 pieces of cardboard
1 empty 2 liter bottle
1 paper towel roll
10 rubber bands
2 balloons
10 straws
1 mousetrap
5 sheets of white paper
Some string
1 egg (to be provided on race day)


VIDEO:
Create a video documentary as you work. You must have at least two video entries: 1 video about your plan as a group to build and 1 video entry where you analyze and reflect on the success of your car in meeting the criteria.


JOURNAL:
Each person in the group must keep a journal of the activities of building the car each day. Keep this in Google Docs and you will submit it once all journal entries are complete. The journal will include what you did each day, what you plan to change, you reflection of how your group works together, and any other information you think should be included.


SHOW WHAT YOU KNOW: In addition to creating the vehicle, you and your group will collaborate on a presentation of your efforts. You may choose how you wish to do this. Some suggestions are
Create a Google Slides presentation
Create a Google Site
Create a full video documentary




Links: Link to PhET Simulation
Link to Egg Inertia Example
Link to Football Forces Article
Materials: Flip Video, Authoring and Publishing, Web Page, Student Resources, Integrating Technology
Other Items: 30 Chromebooks, $245.00 each, total of $7350.00
8 Kodak Playfull Video Cameras, $130.00 each, total of $1040.00
20 Wireless Physics Carts, $159.00 each, total of $3180.00
10 Wireless Force Sensors , $99.00 each, total of $990.00