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Let’s Get Excited about Roller Coasters!


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Keywords: Technology, roller coasters, robotics
Subject(s): Art, Robotics, Spelling, Technology, Grammar, Science, Writing, Reading, Physics, English/Language Arts
Grades 5 through 9
NETS-S Standard:
  • Creativity and Innovation
  • Communication and Collaboration
  • Research and Information Fluency
  • Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Decision Making
  • Digital Citizenship
  • Technology Operations and Concepts
View Full Text of Standards
School: Kealakehe Elementary School, Kailua Kona, HI
Planned By: Kelly Duell
Original Author: Kelly Duell, Kailua Kona
Create Roller Coasters From Cardboard:
This lesson meets the next generation science standards for middle school engineering and design:
www.nextgenscience.org/dci-arrangement/ms-ets1-engineering-design

StudentInformation:
Let’s Get Excited about Roller Coasters!

Introduction to Challenge
Roller Coaster - Kinetic or Potential Energy????
An amusement park has decided to open a theme park to be located in Waikoloa Village, Hawaii. It is an exciting time for the citizens of Waikoloa Village. Finally, this small town will be put on the map for something big. The residents are anxiously anticipating the grand opening of the amusement park. However, the operators of the amusement park need your help. They want to design a new roller coaster with a car that runs as smoothly as a marble would down the track. Your team has been hired to design this new roller coaster track for this theme park. Your task is to design a model of the track you would like to build for this amusement park. Your model must demonstrate the law of conservation of energy, gravity, force, momentum, and especially kinetic and potential energy.
 

Lesson One:
Before you can design your Roller Coaster, you need to gain some experience and expertise. To do that, you will build a Roller Coaster via simulation, and then conduct the necessary research to become an expert on Roller Coaster Design.

Roller Coaster Building Simulation:
• Complete the Cornell Notes for the Introduction, Roller Coaster, and Ride Safety sections ONLY of Amusement Park Physics.
• Amusement Park Physics:
o Introduction: http://www.learner.org/interactives/parkphysics/index2.html
o Physics Glossary: http://www.learner.org/interactives/parkphysics/glossary.html
o How does a roller coaster work?: http://www.learner.org/interactives/parkphysics/coaster.html
o Carousel: http://www.learner.org/interactives/parkphysics/carousel.html
o Bumper Cars: http://www.learner.org/interactives/parkphysics/bumpcars.html>o FreeFall: http://www.learner.org/interactives/parkphysics/freefall.html
o Pendulum: http://www.learner.org/interactives/parkphysics/pendulum.html>o RideSafety: http://www.learner.org/interactives/parkphysics/ridesafety.html<br>o Relatedsources: http://www.learner.org/interactives/parkphysics/resources.html
• Students complete the Simulation prior to participating in this Engineering Design Activity. http://www.learner.org/interactives/parkphysics/coaster/

Lesson
Two:
Directions:
Background Knowledge Building:
Please read the following information. Be sure to mark the text! Then answer the questions.
1. You will need to research roller coasters and the physics involved in roller coasters from multiple sources in order to become a roller coaster expert.
2. Read and Annotate the Article “How Roller Coasters Work” or go on-line to How Stuff Works: How Roller Coasters Work (there are 11 “clicks” and an animation you must complete).
3. Be sure to take Cornell Notes!
4. Vocabulary:
o Gravity o Mechanical Energy o Conservation of Energy
o Energy o Kinetic Energy o Potential Energy
o Force o Friction o Nuclear Energy
o Resistance o Thermal Energy o Chemical Energy

5. Read and Annotate the Wonderopolis Article. *Take Cornell Notes!
Are you ready for some excitement? Today in Wonderopolis we're headed to the amusement park to take a spin on that hair-raising, scream-inducing ride we know as the roller coaster!
Have you ever looked closely at a roller coaster, though? Did you realize it doesn't have an engine? Have you ever stopped to WONDER how a roller coaster operates at such high speeds without one? Let's take a look at the scientific principles and forces behind the thrills of the roller coaster.
Since roller coasters don't have engines, they must be pulled by a motorized chain to the top of the first big hill. As the roller coaster rises higher and higher into the air, its potential energy keeps growing until it reaches its maximum potential energy at the crest of the hill.
Potential energy is sometimes known as positional energy. Potential energy represents the amount of work the roller coaster will be able to do with the energy it builds up from falling down the other side of the hill.
And why does it fall down that hill? It's the same reason you fall down when you trip. Or why a ball hits the ground when you drop it. What are we talking about? Gravity, of course!
When a roller coaster crests the first big hill, gravity takes over, causing the roller coaster to fall down at a constant rate of 9.8 meters per second squared. All that stored potential energy changes to kinetic energy, which can also be thought of as moving energy.
As the roller coaster falls, it accelerates and builds up enough kinetic energy to propel it through the remainder of the ride. No engine is required because of inertia. Inertia is one of the laws of physics described long ago by Sir Isaac Newton. The law of inertia holds that an object in motion will stay in motion until acted upon by an equal but opposite force.
In the case of a roller coaster, this means that the kinetic energy built up from the fall down the first hill could keep it going forever. We all know, though, that roller coaster rides don't last forever. That's because the roller coaster loses energy to other forces as it does loop-the-loops, curves, and other hills along the way.
These other forces eventually bring the roller coaster to a stop, albeit with some help from air brakes at the very end of the ride. So what are these other forces? Two of the most significant are friction and air resistance. As you ride a roller coaster, its wheels rub along the rails, creating heat as a result of friction. This friction slows the roller coaster gradually, as does the air that you fly through as you ride the ride.
Roller coaster rides are so exciting (or terrifying!) for some people because of the other forces at work on your body during the ride. The forces of gravity and acceleration that move the roller coaster along the track also affect your body in the same ways.
For example, when you go around a sharp curve or a loop-the-loop, special forces of acceleration push you in different directions. Not only do these forces keep you in your seat, but they also are responsible for the exhilarating feelings you get that some people call a “rush."
Some people also love the weightless feeling you get briefly at the top of a loop-the-loop. That feeling you get is caused by two forces countering one another: gravity is pulling you toward the ground at the same time as inertia is pulling you toward the top of the loop.
If you want to ride the world's fastest roller coaster, you'll need to catch a flight to Ferrari World in Abu Dhabi, which is part of the United Arab Emirates. There you can ride the Formula Rossa, which reaches an amazing top speed of 149.1 miles per hour. The ride is so intense that passengers must wear goggles to protect their eyes!

Kinetic and Potential Energy
Most of us think of energy as the power our bodies have to move or do work. We have a lot of energy when we are rested or excited, and less energy when we are tired or bored. But that is only one kind of energy. Energy is working all around us. It powers cars and gives us light. Energy keeps us warm and creates sound. Without energy, we could not grow, move, or even stay alive! To understand energy and how it helps make life possible, we must learn that there are two kinds of energy: kinetic and potential.
Kinetic
“Kinetic” is another word for “motion.” Scientists use it to define energy that is moving. For example, waves in the ocean have kinetic energy, because they are moving. Something as big as a plane in flight has kinetic energy, but size is not important. Atoms, which are the tiniest particles of matter, are also in motion. They have kinetic energy, too. Kinetic energy can appear in many forms.
Potential Energy
Radiant energy is kinetic energy that shows up as light, radio waves, and x-rays.
Thermal energy is kinetic energy that we call “heat.” Heat is actually caused by the
movement of vibrating molecules. Electrical energy is kinetic energy that exists in the movement of electrical charges. Lightening and the electricity that powers your home are two examples. Sound is also kinetic energy. It is created when a force causes an object or other matter to vibrate. We hear sound because force causes our eardrums to move. Motion energy is the simplest form of kinetic energy. It comes from the movement of matter from one place to another. Water flowing is an example of motion energy. So is wind. Scientists believe that energy is not created or destroyed. It simply gets transferred from one object or substance to another. So, if an object is not moving, how can it have energy? The other category of energy is potential energy.
You might have learned that the word potential means a person has the ability to succeed. If you have great potential, you will likely reach your goals. Potential energy has the ability to become kinetic energy. Potential energy is stored energy that will possibly become energy in motion. It is also the “energy of position,” which means that an object’s power comes from gravity.
Potential energy also appears in several forms.
Gravitational energy comes from the potential power gravity can have on the object. Before he jumps from a plane, a skydiver has a great deal of stored, gravitational energy. He has more gravitational energy than a bungee jumper, because he is much higher.
Summing Up
Chemical energy is stored inside of atoms and molecules. These tiny particles are held together with bonds that have stored or “chemical” energy. Stored mechanical energy is energy that is stored in an object before a force causes it to move. For example, when a rubber band is stretched, it has stored mechanical energy, or the potential to be in an object in motion.
Nuclear energy is stored in the information center of an atom: the nucleus. The nucleus is like the brain of an atom, and directs all of its activities. It is held together by a powerful energy. When a nucleus is divided or combined with another nucleus, this potential energy becomes one of the most powerful forces in the universe.
Scientists tell us that all energy is in motion, or has the potential to be in motion. Even objects that appear to be perfectly still have stored energy. This energy changes from potential to kinetic when it is acted upon by some force. Scientists have learned to harness this power and release energy when it is needed. In order to make sure our planet lives for a long time, scientists continue to look for ways to safely store, use, and recycle energy. The exercises on the next page will help you better understand the differences between kinetic and potential energy.



6. Questions: Answer (on a separate piece of paper) in COMPLETE sentences, using proper writing constructs.
1. What causes a coaster to slow down or resist movement and what can be done to overcome the resistance?

2. How does the height (steep or not so steep) of the hills affect the coaster and is the placement of hills important, why/why not?
3. Can all of hills be the same height, why/why not?
4. What kinds of curves (sharp or wide) work best, why/why not?
5. What are the effects of loops?
6. Is the placement (end, middle, end) of the loop important and EXPLAIN why/why not?
7. What forces cause the motion of the roller coaster?
8. How do forces and motion influence roller coaster rides?
9. Explain the effects of friction on the roller coaster.

Challenge Questions:
1. Where might you have a sense of weightlessness and heaviness? Explain this illusion use Newton's Law s of inertia.


2. Where on the roller coaster does the velocity increase? Why?

Answers
1. What causes a coaster to slow down or resist movement and what can be done to overcome the resistance?
~Air Pressure/Air Resistance
~Gravity
~Friction
2. How does the height (steep or not so steep) of the hills affect the coaster and is the placement of hills important, why/why not?
~When R.C. climbs a hill it goes slower and slower due to force of gravity (deceleration = going slower)
~After the coaster has been pulled to the top, no more external energy will be added to it.
~The amount of energy the coaster has to complete its journey around the track depends on the potential energy it has due to its height at the beginning. There is a relationship between the height of this hill and the speed of the coaster.
~The shape of the first hill will determine how fast your coaster can safely travel on the track. Its shape will also determine if the coaster will stay on the track.
3. Can all of hills be the same height, why/why not?
~No, they CANNOT all be the same height.
~Each successive hill must be lower so that the coaster will be able to make it over each peak.
~1st hill tallest=greatest P.E.; G.P.E.
~As R.C. descends, it is accelerating, creating K.E. (greatest at the bottom of 1st hill).
~Due to frictional loses, total energy decreases throughout ride therefore the max hill the R.C. can go up gets smaller.
~Energy from 1st hill has to take R.C. to the end.
~Slope=Increase of velocity, which in turns increases acceleration.
4. What kinds of curves (sharp or wide) work best, why/why not?
~Sharp Curves = increased velocity; increase acceleration.
5. What are the effects of loops?
~In a loop-the-loop, the intensity of the acceleration force is determined by two factors: the speed of the train and the angle of the turn. As the train enters the loop, it has maximum kinetic energy -- that is, it is moving at top speed. At the top of the loop, gravity has slowed the train down somewhat, so it has more potential energy and less kinetic energy -- it is moving at reduced speed.
~Teardrop shape = easier to balance forces; turn is sharper at top, so roller coaster can be sent through at fast enough that is has adequate acceleration force (at the top) while the teardrop shape creates a reduced acceleration force along the sides; giving just enough force.
~Centripetal Force causes object to move in a circle.
~Weightlessness Feeling.

6. Is the placement (end, middle, end) of the loop important and EXPLAIN why/why not?
In middle or right after tallest hill b/c it needs K.E., gravity, & acceleration.
Acceleration = change in speed and direction. As the RC climbs up the loop, it slows down; increase in height = increase in P.E. results in decrease in K.E. & speed; decrease in height = decrease in P.E. results in increase of K.E. & speed. Greatest speed @ beginning of loop; lowest speed @bottom of loop.
Need to keep acceleration at a constant.
Lower speed, curvature of track can be decreased to keep needed centrifugal acceleration, thus ramp up the forces gradually.
7. What forces cause the motion of the roller coaster?
~Law of Inertia
~Gravity
~Centripetal Force
8. How do forces and motion influence roller coaster rides?
~P.E. to K.E.
~K.E. to P.E.
9. Explain the effects of friction on the roller coaster.
Friction is a force that works in the opposite direction of an object that is moving along a surface. Friction can come in many forms, but it always resists motion. The resistance produced when two surfaces rub together.

Challenge Questions:
1. Where might you have a sense of weightlessness and heaviness? Explain this illusion use Newton's Law s of inertia.
~Acceleration
~Gravity
As you move around the loop, the net force acting on your body is constantly changing. At the very bottom of the loop, the acceleration force is pushing you down in the same direction as gravity. Since both forces push you in the same direction, you feel especially heavy at this point.
As you move straight up the loop, gravity is pulling you into your seat while the acceleration force is pushing you into the floor. You feel the gravity pulling you into your seat, but (if your eyes are still open) you can see that the ground is no longer where it should be.
At the top of the loop, when you're completely upside down, gravity is pulling you out of your seat, toward the ground, but the stronger acceleration force is pushing you into your seat, toward the sky.
Since the two forces pushing you in opposite directions are nearly equal, your body feels very light. As in the sharp descent, you are almost weightless for the brief moment when you are at the top of the loop.
As you come out of the loop and level out, you become heavy again.

2. Where on the roller coaster does the velocity increase? Why?
Most amusement park rides involve acceleration. On a downhill slope or a sharp curve, a ride will probably increase in velocity or accelerate. While moving uphill or in a straight line, it may decrease in velocity or decelerate. The force of gravity pulling a roller coaster downhill causes the roller coaster to go faster and faster, it is accelerating. The force of gravity causes a roller coaster to go slower and slower when it climbs a hill, the roller coaster is decelerating or going slower. The acceleration of a roller coaster depends on its mass and how strong is the force that is pushing or pulling it.

3. Terms to know:
The rate of change in velocity (the speed of an object in a certain direction) is known as acceleration. Whether an object is speeding up, slowing down, or changing direction, it is accelerating.
When the coaster is moving through the loop centripetal force comes into play. This is the force that causes an object to move in a circle. It literally means the “center-seeking” force.
Force is a push or pull. Balanced forces are equal forces that are applied in opposite directions and result in no change in velocity. Unbalanced forces are forces that are not equal and opposite, and they result in a change in velocity.
The most interesting and significant force that acts on a roller coaster is the force of gravity. Gravity is the force that pulls all objects in the universe toward one another. The effective acceleration or deceleration due to gravity depends on the inclined angle of the track relative to ground; the steeper the slope is the greater the effective acceleration.
If a body, for example a roller coaster, is standing still, it won’t want to move unless some force pushes or pulls it. This resistance of the roller coaster to move is called inertia. The more mass a body has the more inertia it has.
If the roller coaster is moving, it will want to keep moving, along the direction of motion, unless something causes it to speed up or slow down. This resistance of the moving roller coaster to changing its velocity is another example of its inertia. Again, the greater the mass of the body, the more inertia it has.
An object’s momentum is its mass multiplied by its velocity. If its mass or velocity is large, an object will have a large momentum. The more momentum an object has, the harder it is to stop the object or change the object’s direction.
Speed is distance divided by time or the rate at which an object (the roller coaster) moves. Speed, velocity and acceleration are all-important concepts to understand when building a roller coaster.
Velocity is the speed of an object in a certain direction. When direction changes, velocity changes. The higher the velocity the quicker an object travels between two locations. Velocity is actually speed with direction.

7. Complete the Roller Coaster System Pictorial

Lesson Three:
Directions: Review all the Requirements and Constraints

Challenge: Build a paper/cardboard roller coaster that can carry a marble or Hot Wheel Car for the longest period of time without stopping.

Constraints: (your limitations as an engineer)
o 1 roll of masking tape per team
o _____ # of paper towel/toilet paper rolls per team
o 2 Cardboard box per team (for the base)
o 2 Cereal/Soda Box per team
o _____# of Sticks
o Time to Complete:
2 class periods for the design process.
4 class periods to build.
2 class period to test, redesign, rebuild.
1 class period for presentation.

Additional Building Materials:
1. These are not guarantees, but may be available.
2. To receive additional building materials your group must write a letter to the Building Commissioner that is at least one (1) paragraph, indicating what the supplies will be used for and how it will enhance your Roller Coaster.
3. You must wait for an APPROVAL BEFORE taking the supplies.
o Additional cardboard
o Thicker cardboard
o Various sized tubing

Videos to watch:
The Science Behind roller Coasters
Intimidator 305 Roller Coaster HD

Criteria for Success:
o The roller coaster must be designed for a glass marble or Hot Wheel Car.
o No one can touch the roller coaster once the ride begins.
• The marble or Hot Wheel Car must travel continuously through the whole ride (top to bottom) once it is released, no helping.
• Timing begins when the marble is released from the starting device and ends when the marble crosses the finish line.
o Size: a minimum of 11”x14” base and a minimum of 60 cm in height.
o Required Components (Coasters must have):
One (1) loop
One (1) funnel or helix Two (2) turns:
One (1) wide curve
One (1) sharp curve
One (1) hill/dip

Extra Credit Components:
One (1) twist/Corkscrew

Lesson Four:
Directions:
1. Review the Examples of Roller Coasters (for Inspiration).
2. Review the Examples of Roller Coaster Elements.
3. Review the Procedures.

Examples of Roller Coasters~Pictures for inspiration: http://www.paperrollercoasters.com/gallery.htm


Examples
of Roller Coaster Elements:


Lesson Four (Continued):
Directions:
Pre-Build
Part One:
1. Each team member must submit their own Blueprint (drawing) of a possible roller coaster design (use the provided diagram form).
2. Label the hills with the greatest potential energy and greatest kinetic energy.
3. Label where the transformation of potential to kinetic energy begins.
4. Label where the transformation of kinetic to potential energy begins.
5. Name your roller coaster.

Part Two:
1. Your team must decide on one final design-you may combine parts of each team member’s designs.
2. Draw the final roller coaster design, Blueprint (drawing) on a separate sheet of paper.
3. Determine which pieces need to be made, how many of each need to be made, what building materials are needed, and who is making each piece (write these on Job Duties and Responsibilities form).
4. ). *You may make the components separately then put them together later to construct the coaster.
5. Your Blueprint must receive the stamp of approval by the Permit Office PRIOR to starting construction.


Blueprint
Roller Coaster Design ~ (drawing with Labels)

Job Duties and Responsibilities
Part description
Building Materials:
~estimated how many (TP Rolls, Paper towel Rolls, etc.) are needed Name of the
person making
this part/piece
Put a check here
when all are
complete
Loops

Vertical columns

Diagonal supports

Track pieces

Helix

Sharp Curve

Wide Curve

Funnel

Beams

Merge pieces

Hill/s

Dip/s

Track
r>Corkscrew


LessonFive: What is your Building Plan?
Directions:
Consider the building process and make a plan (the entire team must agree):

What needs to be built and in which order?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.


Howto make various components of a roller coaster
1. To create a curved pipe, cut slits half way through a cardboard tube and bend. Wrap and tape small pieces of cereal box cardboard over the holes.


2. Diagram of columns, diagonal supports, shelves, and curves:


3. To create a funnel, cut a slit in a paper plate, form a cone shape and cut off the point of the cone.


4. To make an angle change, cut part of the tube off (at an angle); slide it over the existing tube, then secure with tape or glue.

5. Attachments:

6. Additional Parts:

Other Hints:
1. Flat pieces of tape work better than loops of tape, hot glue dries instantly so it is preferable to white glue and masking tape can be more easily painted over than clear tape.

2. Test every section of the slide with a marble during the assembly process. If a marble files off, add on a cardboard wall. If a marble gets stuck change the angle of the ramp. If your design begins to sag glue in a cardboard brace to prop it up.



3. Remember, the longer the marble is kept in motion before reaching the bottom, the more likely it is that customers will pay money to ride on your slide. Longer slides are more popular and exciting than shorter ones.


Lesson Six: Construction Begins
Directions:
• Your team will have four (4) days in which to construct/build your Roller Coaster.
• All components should be built prior to attempting to put your Coaster together.
• No changes to your permitted blueprint shall be made; they MUST match.

Lesson Seven: Inspection
Directions:
• Your Roller Coaster must be inspected by the Building Commissioner to determine if your Coaster meets the height and base requirements, a time test, and structure stability test.
• After it has been accepted, you may move onto the rebuilding, redesigning, testing phase.
• All redesigns, additions, changes, etc. must be approved by the Building Commissioner.

Lesson Eight: Presentation
Directions:
• Your group will present your Roller Coaster to the entire class.
• Use the Assessment Rubric to determine what you must present.
• Each member of the team MUST have a speaking part.
• 3 Rides
• Timed
• Describe your Roller Coaster:
o Names of each feature
o Energy for each specific feature
o Forces @ play
o Principles applied
o Content Vocabulary


Assessment:
• Students will demonstrate their marble or Hot Wheel Car “rides” in front of the class.
• A meter stick will be used to measure the height of the roller coaster. (The taller the design and the longer the ball stays in motion, the more successful the design).
• The ride will be timed to determine the how long the marble or Hot Wheel Car stayed in motion.
• Points will be deducted if the marble or Hot Wheel Car flies off the track or gets stuck in the tunnels.
• All marbles and Hot Wheel Cars must be returned to the teacher.
• Each missing marble and Hot Wheel Car will result in the loss of 10 points.

GRADING RUBRIC
Requirements 5 4 3 2 1
Design Features:
Loop
Funnel/Helix
Hill/Dip
Turns: (Wide/Sharp) All five (5) required design features are evident Four (4) required design features are evident Three (3) required design features are evident Two (2) required design features are evident One (1) or fewer required design features are evident
Design Flowed 5 of the components flowed nicely from one to another 4 of the components flowed nicely (from one to another) 1-2 of the components did NOT flow nicely (from one to another) 3-4 of the components did NOT flow nicely (from one to another) 5 of the components did NOT flow nicely (from one to another)
Continuously Travel continuously travel with no help; no stopping or getting stuck continuously travel, with help; 1-2 stops or getting stuck travel with help; 3 stops or getting stuck travel with help; 4 or more stops or getting stuck Did NOT continuously travel
Size
11”x14” base 60 cm in height Base is no smaller than 10”x13” and Height is no smaller than 55 cm Base is 11”x14” and Height is no smaller than 55 cm; or Height is 60 cm and Base no smaller than 10”x13” Base is smaller than 8.5”x11”; Height is smaller than 50 cm Did NOT follow guidelines for Base and Height
Design Diagram:
1. Label the hills with the greatest potential energy and greatest kinetic energy.
2. Label where the transformation of potential to kinetic energy begins.
3. 3. Label where the transformation of kinetic to potential energy begins. Completed with all the required ride components/ features;
All five (5) labels present
and legible
Completed with all the required ride components/ features;
4 labels present
and legible
Completed with all the required ride components/ features;
3 labels present
and legible
Incomplete, missing required ride components/ features;
2 labels present
and legible
Incomplete, missing required ride components/ features;
1-0 labels present
and illegible

Job Duties and Responsibilities form 100% Completed; duties equally distributed 90%-100% Completed; duties equally distributed 90%-100% Completed; duties NOT equally distributed 75% Completed; duties NOT equally distributed 50% or less Completed; duties NOT equally distributed
Name of Roller Coaster Scientific content vocabulary words used (1-2 words);
Makes sense Scientific content vocabulary words used (at least 1 word); Makes sense Scientific content vocabulary words used (1 word used); does NOT really make sense NO scientific content vocabulary words used; does NOT really make sense No scientific content vocabulary words NOT used; does NOT make sense
Structure Structure stayed together for all three (3) trials Structure stayed together for two (2) trials Structure stayed together for one (1) trials Structure did NOT stayed together for any trials Structure was NOT completed for trials
Content Vocabulary Content vocabulary used 100% of the time during trials Content vocabulary used 80% of the time during trials Content vocabulary used 70% of the time during trials Content vocabulary used 50% of the time during trials Content vocabulary used less than 50% of the time during trials
Creativity Unique; never seen this design previously May have seen 1 part of the design previously 1-2 design pieces have been seen previously 50% or more was copied Copied design
Bonus Points
(additional features):
Bonus Points
(fastest time)
Total Points:


Lesson Six: Post-Build Comparison Question
Directions: Please answer the question, following the specifications listed.
*This should be a minimum of 3 paragraphs in length; opening & closing sentences for each paragraph; opening and closing paragraphs; summary; using ELA Constructs. You may need additional paper. You may keyboard and print.

Question:
Explain two (2) forms of energy used by the roller coaster to transfer energy, include a comparison of the differences between the two forms of energy.


Lesson Six: Post-Build Conclusion
Directions: Please answer the question, following the specifications listed.
*This should be a minimum of 5-7 paragraphs in length; opening & closing sentences for each paragraph; opening and closing paragraphs; summary; using ELA Constructs. You may need additional paper. You may keyboard and print.

Question:
Write a conclusion explaining four (4) forces acting on the roller coaster and how these forces affect motion.

Materials: Point and Shoot, Camera Bags, Flash/USB Drives, Tripods, Batteries, Memory Cards, Cables, Office Suite, Clip Art, Worksheets, Dyslexia