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Making Butter- From a Liquid to a Solid

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Keywords: Physical Changes to Matter, Butter, S.T.E.A.M, S.T.E.M, History, Colonial, Seuss
Subject(s): Art, Video, Social Skills, Technology, Chemistry, Science, History, Reading, Physics, Math
Grades 1 through 3
NETS-S Standard:
  • Creativity and Innovation
  • Communication and Collaboration
  • Research and Information Fluency
  • Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Decision Making
  • Technology Operations and Concepts
View Full Text of Standards
School: Acadamie Davinci, Dunedin, FL
Planned By: Cayla Cerchie
Original Author: Cayla Cerchie, Dunedin
S.T.E.A.M Lesson: Making Butter (Changing a liquid to a solid)
SC.2.P.8.1 – Observe and measure objects in terms of their properties, including size, shape, color, temperature, weight, texture, sinking or floating in water, and attractions and repulsion of magnets.
SC.2.P.8.2- Identify objects and materials as solid, liquid, or gas.
SC.2.P.8.3- Recognize that solids have a definite shape and that liquids and gases take the shape of their container.
MAFS.2.MD.3.7- Tell and write time from analog and digital clocks to the nearest five minutes.
MAFS.2.MD.4.10- Draw a picture graph and a bar graph (with single-unit scale) to represent a data set
MA.912.G.8.6- Perform basic constructions using straightedge and compass, and/or drawing programs describing and justifying the procedures used. Distinguish between sketching, constructing, and drawing geometric figures.
VA.2.F.1.2- Explore the advantages of having multiple solutions to solve an artistic problem.
MAFS.K12.MP.5.1- Use appropriate tools strategically.
G.K12.4.3.2d- Creative Methodology - Accomplish: Design original problem solving models for use in specific situations.
• Students will be able to identify the changes and the various states of matter.
• Students will be able to accurately measure length of time using a stopwatch.
• Students will be able to record and graph data.
• Students will be able to engineer an apparatus to solve a problem.
• 18 small glass jars with lids
• 6-9 stopwatches
• Science journals or notebook paper
• Pencils
• Salt
• 4 quarts of Heavy whipping cream
• Copy of The Butter Battle Book by Dr. Seuss
• Various engineering and art supplies
• Projector and screen/whiteboard
• Computer
• Internet connection
• Speakers
• Access to YouTube
Set up:
1. Gather materials (see above)
2. Fill half or 3 quarters of each small baby food jar with heavy whipping cream. Set aside in a cool place. Secure jars with lids.
3. Access video on Youtube: Robert Krampf: Making Butter https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oropJD0CUxI
Lesson Day 1:
1. Watch Robert Krampf Butter Making Video. See link above.
2. Discuss with class changes of matter.
3. Instruct students to follow steps for making butter.
4. Pass out one jar to each student.
5. Pass out stopwatches to pairs of students
6. Instruct students to take turns churning butter and recording length of time of process.
7. Encourage and allow students to taste the butter if desired.
8. Instruct students to create a graph comparing their time and their partner’s time.
9. Have students take home butter.
Lesson Day 2:
1. Read The Butter Battle Book by Dr. Seuss and discuss intricate machines illustrated within.
2. Review butter making process from yesterday’s lesson and discuss problems that may have arose. (ex- sore arm, taking too long, etc.)
3. Discuss innovation and how inventions are created to improve overall quality of life.
4. Have students brainstorm as a class, invention ideas to improve butter churning process. (ex- tape the jar to a ball and roll/toss it back and forth)
5. Have students illustrate or sketch their simple machine or apparatus idea in their science notebook/notebook paper.
6. Allow students to work in small groups (no more than four) to create one of their ideas approved by the teacher using various art supplies/engineering supplies.
7. Have students present their ideas to the class.
• Grade science journal with rubric created by teacher. (Day 1)
• Grade presentation with rubric created by teacher. (Day 2)

• Allow ESOL and students with disabilities to work with partner.
• Grade using alternate rubric made by teacher.
• Allow hearing and listening devices and captioned video.
• Provide visual guide of steps of procedure.
• Allow student to work alone if uncomfortable working in a group.
• GIFTED students will have to design on paper a machine to solve another everyday problem.
You will also need a copy of The Butter Battle Book by Dr. Seuss which you can borrow from your local library.
Cross-Curriculum Ideas
Life in Colonial Days unit, read Little House in the Big Woods by Laura Ingalls Wilder, visit historical park/living museum like Heritage Village or Cracker Country.
See above.
Links: Robert Krampf Making Butter video
Materials: Whiteboards, Projectors, Projector Screens, Art Tools, Books, Internet Services
Other Items: 9 stopwatches , $3.50 each each
18 small glass jars (baby food jars), $0.89 each each
3 1 quart heavy whipping cream, $6.99 each each
1 salt shaker, $0.89 each each