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Mitosis


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Keywords: skit, research, science, collaborative learning, integrating technology
Subject(s): Video, Social Skills, Technology, Autism, Podcasting, Life Science, Special Needs, Animation, Information Skills, Biology, Science, Journalism
Grades 6 through 8
NETS-S Standard:
  • Creativity and Innovation
  • Communication and Collaboration
  • Research and Information Fluency
  • Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Decision Making
  • Digital Citizenship
  • Technology Operations and Concepts
View Full Text of Standards
School: Pinellas Preparatory Academy, Largo, FL
Planned By: Suzanne Mizzi
Original Author: Suzanne Mizzi, Largo
About Me: Mrs. Mizzi
Currently a student at St Leo University pursuing a graduate degree in Educational Leadership. I am an 8th grade science teacher in Florida, employed in a Charter school teaching emotionally mature and creative students.

SCIENCE: Mitosis
NOTE: This lesson plan can be adapted to use with 6 through 8 graders with or without disabilities. Lesson plan for class of 22-25 students of varying abilities. It is to be implemented over the course of at least 6 class periods.

Purpose

To develop an understanding of mitosis.

Alignment : Benchmark Number: SC.7.N.1.1 Benchmark Description: Define a problem from the seventh grade curriculum, use appropriate reference materials to support scientific understanding, plan and carry out scientific investigation of various types, such as systematic observations or experiments, identify variables, collect and organize data, interpret data in charts, tables, and graphics, analyze information, make predictions, and defend conclusions. Benchmark Number: SC.7.L.16.3 Benchmark Description: Compare and contrast the general processes of sexual reproduction requiring meiosis and asexual reproduction requiring mitosis.

Lesson Set-up:
In this lesson, students will make physical representations of mitosis. Read the activity ahead of time and choose appropriate materials for your class.
Possible materials:
• Poster board
• Glue
• Scissors
• Yarn (any color)
• Several small beads
• Lifesavers or other round candy
• Construction paper
• Macaroni
• Spools of thread
• Markers, crayons, or colored pencils
Students will also develop and perform a skit about the phases of mitosis. The props needed for this activity will depend on your students' ideas as they create the skit. You may want to collect as much useful materials to accommodate all groups of student’s ideas.
TECHNOLOGY Materials;
Internet connection, computer or laptop for every two students, Power-point software, Video flip cameras (1-4 ratio) for recording skit and editing software, overhead projector.
ESE materials
Software; Optical character Recognition and text to speech software, speech recognitions software or provide student with alternate input technology. Touch window or mouse-driven keyboards (Thompson, et al, 2004).

Lesson Abstract:
This lesson will introduce students to the step-by-step phases of mitosis in an effort to imprint on the young mind the idea that each cell is highly organized. Prior to this lesson, students should have discussed both plant and animal cell structures. If they haven't, focus students solely on animal cells throughout the lesson.
Instructional Strategies:
PART I- Creating a Physical Representation of Mitosis
In this part of the lesson, students will create physical representations of mitosis on poster board, using a variety of the materials listed in the Planning Ahead section (e.g., yarn to represent chromosomes, lifesavers to represent centromeres).
Students should divide the poster board into five sections (one for each phase of mitosis) and use what they have learned to depict each phase. Students may work independently or in pairs to illustrate mitosis of a plant or animal cell, with the shape reflecting the type; plant cells should be rectangular, and animal cells should be more circular.
You may give specific instructions to the students, or set them free and let their creative juices flow!
Possible instructions include:
• Label the first box Interphase. Draw a circle or rectangle to represent the cell (plant or animal cell) and a small circle in the center to represent a nucleus. The chromosomes cannot be seen yet and the picture should reflect this. Label the cell membrane, the nuclear membrane and the chromatin. If it is a plant cell, also draw and label a cell wall.
• Label the second box Prophase. Draw a cell and use small pieces of yarn to represent the chromosomes. Use four chromosome pairs. Glue the yarn in place, keeping the pairs together. Use small circles of construction paper, small beads, or lifesavers to represent the centromeres, which are attached to the chromosome pairs. The nucleus has disappeared during this phase and the picture should reflect this idea. You may use small rectangles cut from construction paper or pieces of macaroni to represent the centrioles. Label the chromosomes, centromeres, centrioles, and the cell membrane.
• Label the third box Metaphase. Draw the cell and use four double pieces of yarn to represent the double-stranded chromosomes as in prophase. These chromosomes are lined up along the middle of the cell and glued in place. Glue the two objects used to represent the centrioles at opposite ends of the cell. You should also use the glue to attach pieces of thread or string to the yarn chromosomes to represent the spindle fibers. Label the cell membrane, chromosomes, spindle fibers, and the centrioles in this picture, as they are the key organelles in this phase.
• Label the fourth box Anaphase. This cell model should reflect the chromosomes separating and moving to opposite ends of the cell. The spindle fibers are shorter and the four double chromosomes are now being pulled away from each other to form a new cell, identical to the first. Glue all pieces into place and label appropriate parts. (The teacher may direct the labeling in this phase.)
• Label the fifth box Telophase. In the final step of mitosis, the spindle fibers have disappeared along with the centrioles. Draw the cell membrane. Also draw a nuclear membrane and lightly draw lines to represent the chromosomes (they are barely visible in this phase). If the cell is a plant cell, also draw a line to represent the cell wall, which is visible again at this stage.
After all the posters have dried, display them around the class in a "Mitosis Gallery." Ask students to help with the display and divide the posters into two groups based on the cell type.
To check for understanding, have students draw a flow chart depicting a cell going through four rounds of mitosis (rather than just one, as in their posters). Students should realize that four rounds of mitosis would lead to 16 cells (ScienceNetlinks, 2001).

TECHNOLOGY INFUSED PROCEDURES- LAPTOP/DESKTOP Internet Access
NETS STUDENT STANDARDS
1. Basic operations and concepts
a. Students demonstrate a sound understanding of the nature and operation of technology systems (nature and operations) (NCREL, 2005).
3. Technology productivity tools
a. Students use technology tools to enhance learning, increase productivity, and promote creativity (NCREL, 2005).
Students work in groups of two on class laptops or class sets of touch screen Ipods to research the topic by visiting the following websites (two - 55 min class periods).
EXPORATORY PHASE (Hertz, 2011)- Students will visit a teacher created web quest at Zunal.com http://zunal.com/webquest.php?w=65469 to scan for relevant information and videos on Mitosis as an introduction to topic.
Students must complete the following with a partner (two class periods)
Activity worksheet: Division to Multiply (http://www.sfscience.com/admin/pdf/6A2_1BLM.htm)
Website: Division to Multiply (http://www.sfscience.com/english/grade_6/unit_A/chap_2/act_1/1.htm)
Website: The Cell Cycle (http://www.biology.arizona.edu/cell_bio/tutorials/cell_cycle/cells3.html)

Introduce key vocabulary: cell, cell division, chromosome, DNA, mitosis.

Have students visit Division to Multiply and take notes in preparation for a class discussion.

DISCOVERY PHASE (Hertz, 2011)- Once students have collected information and completed the activity worksheet on Mitosis (two 55 min class periods).
- Ask students to complete the Division to Multiply worksheet. Point out that all the required information can be found at The Cell Cycle website.
- Have students work with partners to create an informative teaching interactive animated power-point (provide students with rubric with logistics accordingly), with sound and at least one short imbedded video.
- Arrange a time when students can share their findings in a power-point presentation using overhead projectors or smart board technology.

ESE Accommodations
If your student cannot read assigned printed material, read material from a computer screen or input into the computer provide students with Optical character Recognition and text to speech software, speech recognitions software or provide student with alternate input technology. Touch window or mouse-driven keyboards. Also have two to three buddies for each ESE student.
Other Research Based Accommodations for Assessment
• Allow more time for the student to complete the activities.
• Give completely oral tests or completely written tests, whichever is more appropriate to the students needs.
• Allow students to tape record answers to tests or type answers, as needed.
• Writers should be provided for test-taking if the student is unable to write (or give oral tests out of the earshot of other students).
• Students may type slowly and need extended time for tests.
• Develop a portfolio of the student's work, both singly and as part of a cooperating group. Orally quiz him/her to establish the extent to which the student contributed to the group-based accomplishments (Thompson, et al., 2004).

PART II Mitosis Skit
Have students write and perform a skit to show the process of mitosis, using the loose guidelines that follow. These guidelines are intended to help get you started, as well as provide room for the development of a skit that suits your class size, available supplies, and students' creativity.
Tell students that they need to write a "scene" representing each phase of mitosis. Have them refer to the posters they created to determine the essential "characters," as well as what the characters should be doing in each scene. In addition, have students create a narrator(s) role, which will explain the processes as they are happening in the skit.
Following is a sample scene, representing Metaphase:
When the narrator calls out "Metaphase," the chromosomes meet in the middle of the imaginary cell. The students playing centrioles walk into the center of the cell and had the students playing chromosomes a piece of yarn. This represents the spindle fibers attaching to the chromosomes. While holding the other end of each string, the students playing centrioles walk to opposite ends of the imaginary cell to prepare for anaphase.
Following are ideas for props to be used throughout the skit:
• A circle of students could hold plastic wrap to represent the cell membrane.
• A small group of students could hold bright colored construction paper to represent the nuclear membrane.
• Students could hold oval-shaped construction paper to represent chromosomes; they could use two pieces, one behind the other, which can be separated in prophase when chromosomes duplicate and begin to form an "X".
• Yarn can be used to represent spindle fibers.
Again, structure this activity to meet the needs of your students. It can be as simple or elaborate as you'd like, but should allow students the opportunity to refine and demonstrate their understanding of mitosis (Science Netlinks, 2001).

Technology Infused

NETS STUDENT STANDARDS
B1. Proficient in the use of technology. (Terminology and problem solving)
b. Students practice responsible use of technology systems, information, and software.
3. Technology productivity tools
a. Students use technology tools to enhance learning, increase productivity, and promote creativity (NCREL, 2005).

Materials needed- Flip cameras, Laptop, wires to connect camera to laptop for uploading, editing software, internet access, overhead Projector or Promethian interactive Whiteboard.

DISCOVERY PHASE (Hertz, 2011)- DIGITAL STORY TELLING - With having enough FLIP cameras on campus for at least a 4 to 1 ratio of cameras to kids, you can create group projects, or even use the cameras in rotation throughout the students in your class.

-Using classroom purchased flip cameras, students in groups of 4 will be required to record a 2-5 minute skit, edit as needed and post it to the class webpage for review.
-Also by recording their representation of Mitosis on camera students can share with others across grade levels and create a video library for others to view.
- Teachers can walk around as students are preparing the recording and even provide other areas for them to work if space is limited (Taking them to an outside area with the cameras is a personal favorite for students).
-Plan and schedule a time when the videos will be shared with the classroom on promethian interactive white board allowing students to verbally give a short synopsis of the video before previewing.

***Note if your students have never handled a flip camera it may be wise to first have a short mini lesson teaching proper handling of the technology.
****For maximum available recording time make sure all videos are uploaded and deleted by the end of each period. Please delete all videos from the cameras prior to storing them (Escobedo, 2011).

ESE ACCOMODATIONS
Research Based Accommodations for Assessment
• Allow more time for the student to complete the activities.
• Allow students to tape record answers to tests or type suggestions and ideas for the skit, as needed.
• Students may type slowly and need extended time for tests.
• Have the ESE student partnered up with at least three other non disabled students’ to help with directions and video taping.
• Stay within close proximity to help student as needed with activity (Thompson, et al., 2004).
Develop a portfolio of the student's work, both singly and as part of a cooperating group. Orally quiz him/her to establish the extent to which the student contributed to the group-based accomplishments.

Assessment

Ask students to respond to the following in their science journals:
Pretend you are a theater critic and your job is to write a review of the Mitosis Skit for the school newspaper. Write a brief review that includes at least the following:
• How the skit represented the process of mitosis;
• a review of the players of mitosis (e.g., cell membranes, chromosomes); and
• Thoughts on how this skit could be improved to better represent mitosis (focusing on the content area).
TECHNOLOGY INFUSED ASSESSMENT;

NETS STUDENT STANDARD
1. Basic operations and concepts
a. Students demonstrate a sound understanding of the nature and operation of technology systems (nature and operations).
6. Technology problem solving and decision making tools
a. Students use technology resources for solving problems and making informed decisions
b. Students employ technology in the development of strategies for solving problems in the real world. (NCREL, 2005).
Create a student/teacher blog in which every student (individual post) will have the opportunity to respond to the above questions and collaborate with other students online. Teacher should monitor all students’ activities prior to allowing students to post to blog. A rubric should be provided to encourage students to follow guidelines and can be posted in the blog for easy access (Thompson, 2004).
A sample student teacher blog can be found at http://www.hkaneffscience.blogspot.com/
ESE ACCOMMODATIONS
If your student cannot read assigned printed material, read material from a computer screen or input into the computer, provide students with Optical character Recognition and text to speech software, speech recognitions software or provide student with alternate input technology. Touch window or mouse-driven keyboards. Also have two to three buddies for each ESE student (Thompson, et al., 2004).
Other Research Based Accommodations for Assessment
• Allow more time for the student to complete the activities.
• Give completely oral tests or completely written tests, whichever is more appropriate to the students needs.
• Allow students to tape record answers to tests or type answers, as needed.
• Writers should be provided for test-taking if the student is unable to write (or give oral tests out of the earshot of other students).
• Students may type slowly and need extended time for tests.
• Develop a portfolio of the student's work, both singly and as part of a cooperating group. Orally quiz him/her to establish the extent to which the student contributed to the group-based accomplishments (Thompson, et al., 2004).



My Approach in Infusing Technology and maintaining SLU value of “responsible stewardship”

My approach to integrating technology into a basic non technology infused lesson plan rested solely on availability of technology at our school. First we must provide students with an opportunity to explore the technology, providing them with websites to surf through and learn how to explore and use the tool. Students should only be assessed for their understanding and not formally graded per se (Hertz, 2011). Our expectations may not correspond with the student’s levels of proficiency in the usage of technology; hence providing them with ample exposure to the technology and scaffolding how to use the technology, are great practices. This phase of constructive teaching is known as the exploratory phase of learning (Hertz, 2011). Allowing student’s ample time to practice with technology, during and after school, will aide those students who may not be proficient, which ultimately hinders them from meeting standards. Once the student seems proficient in the usage of technology and he can manipulate the tool to his advantage, he is ready to produce work for formal grading. The discovery phase allows students to show all that they have learned during the exploratory phase and ready to apply their knowledge in specific subject matter tasks (Hertz, 2011) provided by the teacher.
This type of model focuses on the constructive methodology focusing solely on the student’s best interest, and allows a student centered learning approach, while following content standards (Hertz, 2011). “Although instruction will surely center at times on a given application (such as making the links within a Web site), the learner is ready for the new information, has experience with the application, and is learning it in a context that has meaning and purpose (Robertson, 2000).” To justify integrating all technology into subject area lesson plans, it should be made relevant to the student and designed to match their level of proficiency, needs and interests within the classroom activities. By integrating the types of technology into the Mitosis lesson plan the expectation are that students are able to synthesize, analyze and evaluate what they learned (Whitehead, 2003) and carry their new skills across to other subject areas. Eventually students will be able to focus more on the content and less on the tool with regular exposure and practice with technology.
It is imperative that as educators and leaders we maintain a responsible stewardship to our public. Regularly improving ourselves by learning new and improved ways to present new and old information to our students, coworkers and peers, will enhance and solidify our personal dedication to education. Our obligation should focus on the betterment of other human beings in search of truth, love and knowledge. In maintaining a committed desire for educating and guiding others, with integrity and respect, students will reap the benefits for years to come.

REFERENCE

Escobedo Tech Talk (2011). Using FLIP Cameras in Your Classroom. Retrieved on July 20, 2011, from
http://escobedotechtalk.edublogs.org/2009/03/18/using-flip-cameras-in-your-
classroom/

Hertz,
Mary (2011). A Two Step Approach to Integrating Technology. Retrieved on July
23, 2011, from http://www.edutopia.org/blog/two-step-tech-integration-
elementary-mary-beth-hertz

NCREL
(2005).NETS for Students: Achievement Rubric. Retrieved on July 20, 2011,
from http://www.ncrel.org/tech/nets/p-12rubric.pdf

Poole, B., Sky-McIlvain, E., Evans, J., & Singer, Y. (2008, December 30). Education for an Information Age, 7th ed. University of Pittsburgh. Retrieved July 09, 2011, from http://www.pitt.edu/~poole/InfoAge7frame.html

Robertson, Bill (2000). Integrating Technology into Instruction. Retrieved on July 23,
2011, from http://www.infotoday.com/MMSchools/mar00/robertson.htm

Science
Netlinks (2001). MITOSIS. Lesson Plan Retrieved on July 15, 2011, from
http://www.sciencenetlinks.com/lessons.php?BenchmarkID=5&DocID=92
Teachervision
(2009). Division to Multiply – Mitosis. Retrieved on July 18, 2011, from http://www.teachervision.fen.com/science/lesson-plan/5303.html<br>Thompson,J., Bakken, J., Fulk, B., Peterson-Karlan, G. (2004). Using Technology to
Improve the Literacy Skills of Students with Disabilities. Retrieved on July 13,
2011, from http://www2.learningpt.org/catalog/alpha.asp?SessionID=737394536

WV
DOE (2005). Strategies for Teaching Students with Motor /Orthepedic Impairments.
Retrieved on July 20, 2011, from
http://www.as.wvu.edu/~scidis/motor.html#sect5
Whitehead,
B. M., Jensen, D., & Boschee, F. (2003). Planning for technology: a guide for school administrators, technology coordinators, and curriculum leaders. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Corwin Press.

Follow-Up
LESSON Extension
Websites that your student’s may find helpful to strengthen their knowledge on cell reproduction.
QUIA- http://www.quia.com/jg/66180.html This Quia game tests students on cell reproduction, including mitosis and meiosis.
CELLS ALIVE- http://www.cellsalive.com/mitosis.htm See each phase of mitosis as it happens by clicking the forward arrow button in this animation. NOTE: The site includes ads.
DR. SAULS Biology in Motion http://biologyinmotion.com/cell_division/ Students can drag chromosomes form one stage to the next to practice mitosis or meiosis. NOTE: Shockwave is required for this page. NOTE: The site includes ads.
Materials: Whiteboards, Mobile Labs, Video Cameras, Flash Memory Camcorders, Flip Video, Printers, Camera/Video Accessories, Camera Bags, Middle, Autism, Cause and Effect, Early Learning, Switch Software, Dyslexia, Speech and Language, Hardware Devices
Other Items: 12 Flip Cameras, $100.00 each, total of $1200.00
1 Promethean ABV387S300 Interactive Whiteboard, $1295.00 each, total of $1295.00